- Total Exports: US$ 155 billion
- Major export destinations: USA, UAE, China, Singapore, UK, Hong Kong, Germany, Italy, Belgium & Japan
- Major export items:Petroleum Products, Gems & Jewelry, Cotton Garments, Cotton Yarn, Fabrics and Madeups, Machinery and Instruments, Drugs, Pharmaceuticals & Fine Chemicals, Manufactures of Metals, Transport Equipments, Primary & Semi-Finished Iron & Steel
- Total imports: US$ 236 billion
- Major import sources: China, Saudi Arabia, USA, Switzerland, UAE, Iran, Germany, Nigeria, Australia & Kuwait
- Major import items: Petroleum (Crude & Products), Electronic Goods , Gold, Machinery Except Electrical & Electronic, Transport Equipments, Metalifers Ores & Metal Scrap, Pearls Precious Semiprecious Stones, Iron & Steel, Organic Chemicals, Coal, Coke & Briquittes etc.
- Foreign Direct Investment in India
India is one of the most attractive destinations in the world for foreign investment. The strength of India as an investment destination rests on its strong fundamentals, which include a large and growing market; world-class scientific, technical and managerial manpower; cost effective and highly skilled labour; abundant natural resources; a large English speaking population and an independent judiciary. This is now recognized by a number of global investors who have either already established a base in India or are in the process of doing so. Ongoing initiatives, such as further simplification of rules & regulations and improvement in infrastructure are expected to provide the necessary impetus for increasing FDI inflows in future.
India is a fast-growing economy with a dynamic and robust financial system. While its size and growth potential make India attractive as a market, the most compelling reason for investors to be in India is that it provides a high Return on Investment (ROI). India is a free market democracy with a legal and regulatory framework that rewards free enterprise, entrepreneurship and risk taking. This highly diversified economy has shown rapid growth and remarkable resilience since 1991, when economic reforms were initiated with the progressive opening of the economy to international trade and investment.
India's foreign direct investment policy is liberal and investor friendly. FDI upto 100% is permitted on the automatic route in all sector/activities except the following:
- Where more than 24% foreign equity is proposed to be inducted for manufacture of items reserved for small-scale sector;
- Proposals where the foreign investor has an existing joint venture/technical collaboration/trademark agreement in the 'same' field of activity.
- FDI is prohibited only in 4 activities viz. retail trading (except Single Branch product retailing); Gambling & Betting; Lottery and Atomic Energy.
The general policy and facilities for FDI are applicable to Non Resident Indians as well. In addition, Government has extended some additional facilities to NRIs, which include investment in the real estate and civil aviation sectors up to 100 per cent besides a bilateral investment regime on non-repatriation basis.
Sector-wise distribution of FDI inflows
||Services sector (financial & non-financial)
|| 20 |
||Housing & real estates
|| 9 |
Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion: http://dipp.nic.in/
Secretariat for Industrial Assistance: http://siadipp.nic.in/policy/default.htm
About 95% by volume and 70% by value of India's international trade is through the maritime transport. At present, there are 12 Major Ports, six each on the west and the east coast and about 45 non-major and private ports contributing to the maritime trade. These ports are spread along the country's long coastline of around 7517 Kms on the western and eastern shelves of the mainland and also along the islands. The total volume of the traffic handled by all the Indian ports during 2004-05 was 521.58 million tonnes, of which 383.75 million tonnes i.e around 74 percent was handled by Major Ports and remaining 137.83 million tonnes by the non-major ports. Government has taken initiative to expand facilities at some of the major ports through participation by foreign investors.
Major ports in India are located at Chennai, Cochin, Ennore, Jawaharlal Nehru, Kolkata (including Haldia), Haldia, Kandla,Marmugao, Mumbai, New Mangalore, Paradip, Tuticorin, Visakhapatanam.
Major Indian banks
Department of Shipping: http://shipping.gov.in/
The Shipping Corporation of India Ltd.: http://www.shipindia.com/newsite/default.asp
Reserve Bank of India - India's central bank.
Major Indian commercial organizations
Bank of Baroda
Bank of India
Export Import Bank of India
Indian Overseas bank
Industrial Development Bank of India
Punjab National Bank
State Bank of India
Major Autonomous Bodies
- Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)
- Federation of Indian Export Organisations (FIEO)
- Indian Diamond Institute
- Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT)
- Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA)
Major Commodity Boards
Indian Export Promotion Councils
- Coffee Board, India
- Rubber Board, India
- Spices Board, India
- Tea Board, India
- Tobacco Board, India
- Basic Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals and Cosmetics Export Promotion Council (CHEMEXCIL)
- Cashew Export Promotion Council of India (CEPCI)
- Chemical and Allied Products Export Promotion Council (CAPEXIL)
- Council for Leather Exports